By limiting the volume, limiters help to maintain audio quality and prevent clipping and distortion.
You can use a limiter on the vocals, with some automation in different sections, as a final step to make them cut through, prevent clipping, and keep a consistent level. However, generally, it’s not recommended to do, as vocals are pretty dynamic, and you must be careful while processing them.
Let’s discuss this in detail now. Dynamic range refers to the difference in volume between the quietest and the loudest parts of a recording. In the case of vocals, the dynamic range can vary greatly depending on the singing style, microphone technique, and the recording environment.
A wide dynamic range can create a more natural and expressive sound but can also pose challenges during mixing, as the quiet parts of the performance may get lost in the mix, and the loud parts may overpower other elements in the song.
On the other hand, a narrow dynamic range can make the vocals sound more consistent and easier to balance in the mix but can also make them sound less dynamic and emotionally engaging. Generally, a dynamic range of around 10-15 dB is considered typical for vocal recordings, although this can vary depending on the genre, production style, and desired effect.
Now, let’s talk about compressors. A compressor is a vital tool for shaping the sound of vocals in music production. Compression can make the vocals sound more consistent, balanced, and controlled in a mix by reducing the dynamic range of a vocal recording.
Different types of compression can produce different effects, so the kind of compression required on vocals can depend on the desired sound and production style. Here are a few common types of compression that are frequently used on vocals:
- Multiband Compression
This compression type divides the audio signal into different frequency bands and applies separate compression settings to each round. This allows the engineer to shape the sound of the vocals more precisely by controlling the amount of compression applied to specific frequency ranges.
- Optical Compression
This type of analog compression uses an optical gain reduction element to control the amount of compression applied to the audio signal. Optical compressors are known for their smooth, natural sound and are often used on vocals to add warmth and character.
Lastly, limiting is a type of compression that sets a maximum level for the audio signal and prevents the volume from exceeding this level. Limiting is often used on vocals to avoid clipping and to ensure that the vocals remain at a consistent volume throughout the song.
Unlike a regular compressor, which reduces the dynamic range by decreasing the level of the loudest and quietest parts, a limiter sets a threshold. It applies a high ratio of compression to any signals that exceed that threshold. It’s a compressor with an infinite ratio.
This makes the limiter a valuable tool for preventing audio clipping and ensuring that the audio remains at a consistent volume. Hence, limiting is often used on individual tracks, such as vocals, drums, or guitar, to prevent one way from becoming too loud and overwhelming the rest of the mix.
So it’s a great tool to prevent damage to your system in the studio and live settings. It is also used in the final mixing stages to prevent the overall mix from exceeding the maximum volume level. By controlling the dynamic range this way, a limiter can help maintain the desired balance of levels in a mix and ensure that the audio remains clear and distortion-free.
However, as we discussed, vocals are quite dynamic, and their dynamic range has to be treated carefully. So I advise using compressors with high ratios or saturators/distortion plugins instead of limiters if you need to smash the vocals’ dynamics and get an aggressive tone.
When should I use a limiter on vocals?
A limiter is typically used on vocals commonly used on vocals to prevent audio clipping, maintain a consistent volume, and ensure a loud and aggressive vocal performance. Limiting can help balance the levels in a mix and prevent audio distortion, but it should be used cautiously.
Consider the following cases:
- To prevent audio clipping
If the volume of the vocals is too high, a limiter can be used to prevent audio clipping, which occurs when the signal exceeds the maximum level and becomes distorted. A limiter can prevent this by setting a maximum level for the vocals. This makes them great for live performances, so the audio doesn’t jump suddenly.
- To maintain a consistent volume
In some cases, the volume of the vocals may vary throughout the song, making it challenging to balance the vocals in the mix. Using a limiter to set a consistent volume for the vocals, the vocals can be more consistent in the mix and easier to balance with the other elements in the song.
- To ensure a loud, aggressive vocal performance
A loud and aggressive vocal performance is desired in specific genres, such as heavy metal or hip hop. In these cases, a limiter can be used to maximize the volume of the vocals and ensure that they are the dominant element in the mix.
What are the Pros and Cons of using a Limiter on Vocals?
Some pros of using a limiter on the vocals are that a limiter can help prevent audio clipping by setting a maximum level for the vocals, maintaining consistent volume for easier balancing in the mix, and enhancing the loudness and aggressiveness of vocal performances in specific genres.
On the other hand, excessive use of a limiter can lead to a lack of dynamic range, making the vocals sound unnatural and less engaging, reducing clarity and definition, and making the vocals less distinguishable in the mix. It’s important to use caution when applying a limiter to vocals and to adjust the parameters carefully to avoid negatively impacting the overall sound quality.
How Do I Make Vocals Louder?
Making vocals louder in a mix involves combining several techniques, including compression, distortion/saturation, EQ, volume adjustment, time-based effects, and stereo enhancement. However, processing vocals is an art; with the right technique, you can make them cut through and stand out.
Vocal loudness refers to the perceived volume or strength of the vocal track in a mix. It is critical to ensure that the vocals are heard clearly and prominently over the other elements in the mix. It’s essential to strike the right balance between the vocals and the other elements in the mix and find a volume that works well for the particular recording and desired result.
The desired level of vocal loudness will depend on the genre of music, the style of the recording, and the individual preferences of the audio engineer or producer. Finally, making vocals louder in a mix involves a combination of the following techniques:
Compression can be used to even out the volume of the vocals, making the quiet parts louder and the loud parts softer. This helps make the vocals stand out in the mix and ensure they are consistently audible.
EQ can boost the frequencies necessary for the vocals, such as the high-midrange frequencies that provide clarity and definition. The vocals can sound brighter and more present in the mix by boosting these frequencies.
- Volume adjustment
The voulme of the vocals can be increased by using a fader or gain control of the mixing software. This is a simple way to make the vocals louder, but it should be used cautiously, as increasing the volume too much can lead to audio clipping and distortion.
Reverb can be added to the vocals to create a sense of space and make the vocals sound more present in the mix. By adding a small amount of reverb, the vocals can be made to sound louder and more prominent.
- Stereo Enhancement
By using stereo enhancement techniques, such as panning, the vocals can be made to sound broader and more spacious in the mix, which can help to make them stand out and sound louder.
- Saturation and distortion
The effects can be used to make vocals louder in a mix by creating harmonic content and increasing the perceived volume of the vocals. Saturation is a process that adds harmonic content to the audio signal, which can make the vocals sound thicker and more analog-like. Increasing the harmonic content, the vocals can sound louder and more present in the mix.
Distortion, on the other hand, adds harmonic content and increases the level of the audio signal, making the vocals sound louder. However, it’s important to use distortion with caution as it can quickly make the vocals sound harsh and unpleasant if used excessively. Both saturation and distortion can be used as subtle effects to make the vocals sound more prominent in the mix, or they can be used more aggressively to create a specific sound or effect.
In general, it’s essential to use saturation and distortion with caution, as excessive use can lead to a lack of dynamic range and make the vocals sound less engaging. The desired effect should be achieved by carefully adjusting the processing parameters and listening carefully to the result in the mixed context.
It is important to note that while limiting can be a helpful tool, it should be used with caution, as excessive use of a limiter can lead to a lack of dynamic range and make the vocals sound less uengaging. The amount of limiting required on vocals will depend on the specific recording and the desired result.
It may be necessary to use a combination of limiting and other types of compression to achieve the desired sound. Hence, it should be used only in some cases, and if you want to achieve loudness, energy, or aggressiveness in vocals, do that using compressors and distortion tools instead. I hope the article was of help. Thank you for reading.
Shaurya Bhatia, is an Indian Music Producer, Composer, Rapper & Performer, who goes by the stage name MC SNUB, and is also 1/2 of the Indian pop music duo, called “babyface”. A certified Audio Engineer & Music Producer, and a practicing musician & rapper for more than 6 years, Shaurya has worked on projects of various genres and has also been a teaching faculty at Spin Gurus DJ Academy.